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Reading Comprehension Inference Questions Review Quiz
Passage 1: Monteiro CA, Cannon G (2012) The Impact of Transnational “Big Food” Companies on the South: A View from Brazil. PLoS Med 9(7): e1001252.
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- Question 1 of 1RC Academy 1.9
1. Question1. Brazil Big Food
(1). Analyses of household food expenditure surveys conducted in Brazil over the past 40 years show that, in common with other Latin American countries, Brazil retains many long-established food systems and dietary patterns. These dietary patterns show the influences of native populations, the country's Portuguese colonizers, and African slaves and their descendants. Minimally processed food staples include rice, a variety of beans, and the root cassava. These staples form the basis of everyday main meals, and are made delicious and attractive by various methods of preparation and cooking, and by the addition of oils, seeds, leaves, herbs, and spices, some of which are rich in nutrients. The amount of meat, fish, and other animal products in long-established Brazilian diets depends on availability, price, and income. In the past, these foods were usually eaten only in small amounts on a daily basis, and in large quantities only as part of feasts or other special occasions.
(2). Meals prepared and eaten by the family at home remain an integral part of the Brazilian way of life. Notwithstanding intense pressures, which include ubiquitous television and internet propaganda designed to turn eating and drinking into constant individual snacking, food and drink consumption is not yet isolated from family and social life in Brazil. This is arguably the most important factor protecting national and regional traditional food systems.
(3). It would be wrong, however, to romanticize Brazilian traditional food systems and dietary patterns—they are far from ideal. The influence of the seafaring Portuguese colonizers and the need to preserve animal foods by salting before the widespread availability of refrigeration means that the typical Brazilian diet is high in salt, which has resulted in high rates of hypertension and stroke in the country. The traditional diet is also sugary, the result of Brazil being for centuries the world's largest producer of sugar. Further, while a variety of indigenous or established tropical fruits are consumed, commonly at breakfast or as desserts, consumption of green vegetables remains low, particularly among the lowest-income families. More positively, malnutrition is generally uncommon or rare at all stages of life and rates of obesity in Brazil were low until the late 1970s.
(4). Brazil is a large country that still retains its long-established food systems and thus dietary patterns. By contrast, the traditional food systems of fully industrialized high-income countries like the US and the UK were largely displaced generations ago. As a result, the views of many commentators and policy-makers in Brazil are in sharp contrast with their counterparts in the US and the UK. In countries like the US, the general tendency is to deal with food, nutrition, and public health in isolation as matters largely of information, education, and “individual lifestyle adjustments” designed to reduce the risk of various disabilities and diseases. But in Brazil and other countries in South America, food is seen by most independent scholars and policy-makers as part of a much broader discourse that involves general well-being, the family, friendship, commensality, culture, sustainable livelihoods, environmental preservation, national identity and sovereignty, as well as personal and public health.Correct / You marked this questionIncorrect / You marked this question
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